I'm a multi-disciplanary creative coder located in Amsterdam. Over the past seven years, I've leveraged my coding and visual skills to work on AAA- and indie-games. Right now, I'm looking to expand my horizon and use my skills and passions in yet unexplored territories.

I have a passion for code, music, visuals, storytelling and anything in between.

App Development

During the early days of the App Store I founded my own company to develop and publish apps for the iPhone, and later the iPad as well. I was responsible for both the design and the code for these apps.

Below you'll find two of the apps I've worked on.
Critical Wave (2010 - iOS, BlackBerry)
Critical Wave was developed in 2010-2011 and was released on the App Store in early 2011. It was one of the first dual-stick shooters on the App Store and got featured world wide by Apple in the games section of the store. The game uses my own in-house engine and is highly optimised for performance, running at 60 frames per second consistently on the iPhone 3G.
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"Critical Wave is a dual stick shooter built with just one thought, action! This game will give you hours of fun, as you blast your way through endless waves of enemies and battle giant evolving bosses. Amazing visuals coupled with varied gameplay make this easily one of the top-ranked shooters on BlackBerry World. Upgrade your ship and collect cool powerups to stand a chance against the onslaught of enemies heading your way!"

Gameplay video

For this game I developed my own engine to run on the iPhone. It uses technologies such as OpenGL for graphics, OpenAL for sound and music, and various open source libraries such as FreeImage and libvorbis for loading images and sound effects. Since this is a bullet hell shooter, the biggest challenge while developing this game was making sure the collision detection for all of the bullets would be fast enough. Also, the number of draw calls had to be drastically reduced to achieve the desired sixty frames per second. This was achieved by using texture atlasses and batching up all of the things being drawn into only a few draw calls. After the initial release for the iPhone, I"ve ported this game to the iPad (Critical Wave HD), BlackBerry 10 (featuring controller support), PlayStation Portable, and MacOS X and Windows.

The app is no longer available on the App Store, but it can still be found on BlackBerry World.

Release Trailer

Untitled Paint App (2011 - iOS)
After work on Critical Wave I embarked on a mission to create a finger painting app for iOS. The unique features were to be a high quality smudge tool and replaying and recording your creations..
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The application was never completed due to a lack of time. Most of the features are there, but the UX of the app still needed a lot of work. At the time of beta testing I got hired to work at Nixxes, a full time occupation that required all my dedication.

  • Picture gallery,
  • Share picture gallery from your iDevice using HTTP to access pictures from your PC,
  • Share pictures through Facebook, Flickr or e-Mail,
  • UI with minimal clutter while you're drawing,
  • Fast access to brush size,
  • 24x zoom,
  • Accurately sampled brushes for anti-aliased lines,
  • Stroke smoothing,
  • Two-finger zoom and pan,
  • Double-tap to switch between 100% and custom zoom levels,
  • A set of 3 layers, each with its own opacity and visibility toggle,
  • Intuitive layer management screen,
  • Merge layers or give them a color fill,
  • Acquire images from your photo album or camera,
  • Rotate, pan and zoom your acquired images,
  • Full replay support, including captured images, from within the app,
  • Replay support allows you to render your images to up to 4x their original size, using high-quality brushes,
  • Save images as multi-layered photoshop (PSD) files from the viewer application,
  • Save your replay as Apple QuickTime movie from the viewer application,
  • Brush, smudge and eraser tools,
  • Mirrored drawing,
  • Soft brush (with user-defined hardness) supported in all three tool modes,
  • Floating point (128 bit) editing surface enabling highly accurate blending and smudging, without any loss of color information,
  • Up to 4 megs worth of undo/redo support,
  • Runs just fine on an iPhone 3G, and even greater on a 3GS or iPhone4!

Game Development

At Nixxes I worked as a game technology and porting programmer. I've worked on various games in the Tomb Raider series, making sure they run well on every platform I touched. During the five years I worked at Nixxes I gained invaluable knowledge about developing for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Steam and Xbox One. A colleague and I built the PlayStation 4 renderer from the grounds up for Tomb Raider: Definitive Edition, Besides renderering related work, I've worked on platform specific features like PlayStation Network integration, ESRAM optimizations, PlayStation 4 lightbar and touchpad support, matchmaking, job systems, hardware decompression, movie decoding and Mantle performance optimization.

Below is a summary of the projects I've worked on.
Tomb Raider (2013 - Xbox360)
"This latest version of the puzzle-action series goes all the way back to Lara's early years as an archaeology graduate and her first adventure on a mysterious island, which ultimately shapes her personality and hones her combat skills and athleticism to create the character you know and love today."
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For the reboot of the Tomb Raider franchise, the engine needed to be upgraded to support large open environments. To this end, I've worked on revamping the occlusion culling and rendering systems, creating an optimised OBB structure that's updated in real-time for culling purposed, and moving most of the renderig code to another thread. In addition to the renderig work, I've optimised a lot of other systems to get the performance level Crystal desired. After completing work for the Xbox 360, I've helped with doing final optimistion and bugfixing pass for the PlayStation 3 and PC (DX9 and DX11) versions of the game.

Official Trailer

Tomb Raider - Definitive Edition (2013 - PS4)
"The cinematic action-adventure that forced Lara Croft to grow from an inexperienced young woman into a hardened survivor has been re-built for next-gen consoles, featuring an obsessively detailed Lara and a stunningly lifelike world."
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For the Definitive Edition of the critically acclaimed reboot of the Tomb Raider franchise, we worked in close collaboration with United Front Games to upres the game and bring it to the Xbox One and PlayStation 4. I worked primarily on the PlayStation 4 version of the game, but I also helped UFG with optimising Xbone One performance by leveraging low level rendering optimisations and improving ESRAM support. Since the engine completely lacked support for the PlayStation 4, me and a small team of porting engineers implemented all of the platform support. My responsiblities included building the graphics system (on top of gnm), movie playback, adding PlayStation network support, PlayStation Plus checks, user management (login/-out, signin/-out, parental controls, age check, etc), controller support, upgrading some of the UI to support the touchpad, voice commands, TRC compliance work, general cpu optimisation and bugfixing.

Annoucement Trailer

PS4/PS3 Comparison and Analysis

Thief 4 (2014 - PC)
"Garrett, the Master Thief, steps out of the shadows into the City. In this treacherous place, where the Baron's Watch spreads a rising tide of fear and oppression, his skills are the only things he can trust. Even the most cautious citizens and their best-guarded possessions are not safe from his reach."
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Thief was built on top of Unreal Engine, and at Nixxes we were responsible for the PC version of the game. For the PC version I created a memory optimised 32 bit version that would fit within a 2GB virtual address space. I gained significant memory savings by dropping a few graphics features (like reflection cards) and optimising Unreal Engine itself. Memory usage was reduced by around 40% compared to the 64 bit version of the game and customers would recommend running the 32 bit version on forums when users experienced bad performance on their PCs. I also helped to optimise render thread performance and VRAM management for the Mantle version. We tried to reduce the render thread overhead as much as possible, so we could optimally benefit from deferred contexts on Mantle.

Gameplay Trailer

Temple of Osiris (2014 - PS4)
"Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris is the sequel to the critically-acclaimed Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light, and the first-ever four-player co-op experience with Lara Croft."
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Temple of Osiris was our second PlayStation 4 title. For Temple of Osiris we added a linear lighting model and we spent a lot of time getting matchmaking and multiplayer gameplay working. I bugfixed and tested a lot of multiplayer code, including but not limited to network coordinated level streaming, the character selection screen, coordinated loading screens, menus, synchronisation of game state. I also helped optimise network bandwidth and did a lot of general bugfixing to get the game shipped.

Announcement Trailer

Rise of the Tomb Raider (2015 - Xbox360, PS4)
"Featuring epic, high-octane action moments set in the most beautiful hostile environments on earth, Rise of the Tomb Raider delivers a cinematic survival action adventure where you will join Lara Croft on her first tomb raiding expedition as she seeks to discover the secret of immortality."
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Rise of the Tomb Raider was the first triple A game we developed for the 'next-gen' PS4 & Xbox One. However, since the Xbox360 still had a considerable install base, it was decided to publish the game on Xbox360 as well. For the Xbox360 port I was responsible for a considerable amount of the memory and CPU optimization that took place. Besides the Xbox360 version of the game, I helped out with the PS4 version of the game when needed.

Launch Trailer


I love to draw and paint and I hope to incorporate more of my own art into multidisciplinary works. Also, I want to take drawing into a direction that's either more based around storyteliing or to create conceptual work. Below you'll find some of my drawings and paintings.